Laboratory for Research in Advanced Rock Engineering

Our Vision: Rock Engineering Redefined ™

Modern mining industry faces new challenges: lower ore grades, increased variability within ore bodies, and fluctuating commodity prices. All of those impact projects profitability. The Laboratory for Research in Advanced Rock Engineering at the University of British Columbia (UBC) adopts modern field data techniques, laboratory testing and state-of-the-art numerical tools that allow integrating geological and rock mechanical information in a predictive model essential for short and medium-term planning. Our research focus on:

  • The role of spatially variable rock mechanical properties with respect to slope design, drilling, blasting, fragmentation, stability of underground excavations, planning of mine layouts and stopping sequences, comminution, crushing, and milling.
  • Understanding geological variability and investigating the relationship between rock mechanical property, geological and mineralogical characters.
  • Application of discrete fracture networks to characterise rock mass quality and natural fragmentation
  • Synthetic rock mass modelling
  • Challenges in the characterization of intact rock bridges in rock slopes
  • Analysis of fragmentation processes
  • Design of rock foundation anchorage
  • Modelling of blast-induced damage

Facilities and Equipment

Our graduate students have access to state-of-the-art numerical codes, workstations for advanced numerical modelling and a modern rock mechanics laboratory equipped with an MTS-85 for uniaxial/triaxial testing, a GCTS DS-100 for direct shear testing, a GCTS-PLT110 for point load testing, and a GCTS-75 Grinder and Saw for rock samples preparation. In the last 5 years we have invested more than $160,000 to purchase new equipment and maintain software licenses. Our rock mechanics lab is equipped with the following testing devices. The equipment is available on request for commercial testing.

Test Type

Equipment

Notes:

Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)

UCS with Strain Measurements

Brazilian Tensile

MTS 815

Dual-averaged, knife-type axial gauge and circumferential (chain-type) gauge for unconfined tests

Max compression 1600 kN

Max tension 1050 kN

Point Load (In-house Testing)

Custom-made apparatus
GCTS PLT-100

Custom-made apparatus: 50 kN capacity

PLT-100: 100 kN load capacity

Point Load (Equipment Rental)

RocTest Telemac PIL-7

Ideal for field work. The equipment can be shipped directly to site if necessary using the box provided.

70kN capacity

Direct Shear

Hencher and Richards (1982) apparatus with digital gauges
GCTS RDS-100

100 kN shear load capacity
50 kN normal load capacit

Graduate Students

Our research group includes a mix of domestic and international students, which are passionate about their research and work hard to contribute to important advances in the field of rock engineering. Our graduate students receive training related to state-of-the-art numerical modelling, laboratory experimentation and instrumentation, and field data collection. Currently we have 3 full time PhD students and 4 full time MASc students.

We welcome collaboration with other institutes and universities in Canada, North America and worldwide. 2 visiting PhD candidates (University of Science & Technology, Beijing, China; University of Chile, Santiago, Chile) just completed a 12 months study visit with us. 2 PhD candidates from the University of Bologna (Italy) and the University of Siena (Centro di Geotecnologie, Italy), and 1 MASc candidate from the Politecnico di Torino (Italy) completed exchange programs with us in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Former graduate students include 5 MASc students (direct supervision) and 3 PhD students (direct supervision and co-supervision).

Contact Us:

Dr. Davide Elmo

The University of British Columbia,

513-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C., V6T1Z4, Phone 604 822 9304; delmo@mining.ubc.ca

Key Research Topics
Application of discrete fracture networks to characterise rock mass quality and natural fragmentation

Rock engineering design requires quantitative measurements of rock mass properties. Quantification of rock mass quality holds many challenges: rock masses are spatially variable, and their quality cannot be realistically described by a single averaged rock mass rating. There is the need to develop classification methods that use direct measurements of intact rock and discontinuities properties rather than qualitative and semi-quantitative ratings. Our research team employs discrete fracture network (DFN) models as effective tools for the characterization of rock masses by using statistical distributions to generate realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of natural fracture networks, that also account for the spatial variability of fracture intensity and joint roughness/alteration conditions.

Example of the use of DFN models to study the correlation between rock quality designation (RQD) and Geological Strength Index (GSI) for varying fracture frequency (P10).

Example of the use of DFN models to show how the estimated rock mass quality (GSI) for a large-scale slope problem would vary depending on the modelling assumptions (Miyoshi et al., 2018)

Read more about this topic:

  • Elmo D., S. Rogers, D. Stead and E. Eberhardt. 2014. A Discrete fracture network approach to characterise rock mass fragmentation and implications for geomechanical upscaling. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 123(3), pp. 149-161.
  • Miyoshi T., D. Elmo and S. Rogers. Influence of the data characterization process on discrete network analyses of fractured rock masses and implications for classification systems. Submitted to International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Revised paper submitted May 2018.

Synthetic rock mass modelling

In the past decade the synthetic rock mass (SRM) approach has been increasingly used for simulating the mechanical behaviour naturally fractured rock masses. Three main components converge into the SRM approach: i) data collection and characterisation, ii) discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling, and iii) the geomechanical model used for simulating rock mass behaviour, and combining the effects of intact rock fracturing and failure occurring along the natural fractures. The use of a SRM modelling approach has several benefits; for instance, SRM modelling results allow the definition of equivalent Mohr-Coulomb or Hoek-Brown strength envelopes, and fully account for anisotropic effects and rock mass scale effects.

Example of 2D SRM models and analysis of anisotropic effects (Elmo et al., 2016)

Relationship between SRM based shear strength and sample size (Elmo, 2012).

Read more about this topic:

  • Elmo D., K. Moffitt and J. Carvalho. 2016. Synthetic rock mass modelling: experience gained and lessons learned. 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Houston, Texas, June 2016. Paper 777.
  • Elmo D., E. Eberhardt and D. Stead. 2016. Discrete Fracture Network modelling: importance of accounting for data uncertainty and variability. Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining – MassMin 2016. Paper 183.

Challenges in the characterisation of intact rock bridges in rock slopes

The importance of intact rock bridges and step-path geometries in both engineered and natural rock slopes has been recognised for almost five decades; notwithstanding, reliable estimates of rock bridge percentages and the magnitude of rock bridge strengths to assume in slope analyses remains a major challenge. Any attempt to measure rock bridges is exacerbated by the fact that rock bridges are not visible unless the rock mass is exposed by human activities or by natural events. Human activities (e.g. blast induced, and excavation induced fractures) may further complicates the definition and measurement of rock bridges. To allow further advances in rock bridge research, we recognize the importance of an integrated state-of-the art characterisation, numerical modelling, and slope monitoring approach emphasising the control of fracture network connectivity on both measured and simulated rock slope performance. Our research aims to provide better definitions and measurement of rock bridges. Our research have proposed a unified system of rock bridge intensity measures that provide an easy framework to move between differing scales and dimensions (RBij) that combines the dimensions of the sample and the dimensions of the measurement.

RBij system to define rock bridge intensity (Elmo et al., 2018b)

Relationship between problem scale and model discretization to account for rock bridge strength (Elmo et al., 2018a).

Read more about this topic:

  • Elmo D., D. Donati and D. Stead. Challenges in the characterization of rock bridges. Submitted to Engineering Geology. Minor corrections required, revised paper submitted June 2018.
  • Elmo D. and D Stead. 2018. Definition and characterisation of intact rock bridges: implications for 2D and 3D slope stability problems. Symposium in Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering. Seville, Spain, April 11-13, 2018.
  • Elmo D., C. Clayton, S. Rogers, R. Beddoes and S. Greer. 2011. Numerical simulations of potential rock bridge failure within a naturally fractured rock mass. Proceedings International Symposium on Rock Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Vancouver, Canada.

Analysis of fragmentation processes

The fragmentation produced in the orebody during the caving process controls the overall success and profitability of a block caving operation; however, fragmentation is extremely difficult to measure reliably and routinely. Advanced numerical analysis is used to simulate the processes of rock breakage that are expected to occur inside an ore column in a block cave mine. The proposed approach is capable of simulating crushing and abrasion between rock blocks in a realistic manner. The approach is also capable of reproducing hangs-ups and stable arching conditions that might be encountered at the drawpoints in a block cave mine.

Example of numerical analysis of fragmentation processes and draw for a single drawpoint.

Example of numerical analysis of fragmentation processes and draw for a multiple drawpoints.

Read more about this topic:

  • Hao S., G. Yongtao, D. Elmo, J. Aibing, W. Shunchuan and L. Dorador. 2018. A study of gravity flow based on the upside-down drop shape theory and considering rock shape and breakage. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. In Press.
  • Elmo D., T. Miyoshi, H. Sun and A.B. Jin. 2017. An FEM-DEM numerical approach to simulate secondary fragmentation processes. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Geotechnics. Wuhan, China, October 2017.
  • Elmo D., S. Rogers, L. Dorador and E. Eberhardt. 2014. Proc. 14th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Geotechnics. Kyoto, Japan.

Design of rock foundation anchorage

A major consideration in the design of high capacity tiedown anchors for dam, bridge and tower foundations is the tensile resistance of the rock mass to pullout, typically as a result of overturning moments or hydrostatic uplift. Rock mass pullout capacity for installed anchors is developed from the tensile strength and fracture propagation properties of intact rock, the orientation and physical properties of the discontinuities and anchor confinement at depth. The typically assumed, but generally conservative, design approach is to calculate anchor pullout capacity using the dead weight of a uniformly shaped inverted “cone” with an assumed initiation point and breakout angle. As an alternative to the current foundation anchor design method, Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) combined with numerical simulations can be used in attempt to reduce the uncertainty inherent in the design of rock anchors.

Read more about this topic:

  • Panton B., D. Elmo, D. Stead and P. Schlotfeldt. 2015. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 124(3), pp. 150-162.

Modelling of blast-induced damage

Our research group have successfully applied hybrid finite-discrete element methods to study blast-induced damage in circular tunnels. An extensive database of field tests of underground explosions above tunnels is used for calibrating and validating the proposed numerical method; the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with published data for large-scale physical experiments. The method is then used to investigate the influence of rock strength properties on tunnel durability to withstand blast loads. To date the analysis has considered blast damage in tunnels excavated through relatively weak (sandstone) and strong (granite) rock materials. It was found that higher rock strength will increase the tunnel resistance to the load on one hand, but decrease attenuation on the other hand. Thus, under certain conditions, results for weak and strong rock masses are similar.

  • Mitelman A. and D. Elmo. 2015. Analysis of Tunnel Support Design to Withstand Spalling Induced by Blasting. Journal of Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. Vol. 51, pp. 354-361.
  • Mitelman A. and D. Elmo. 2014. Modelling of blast induced damage in tunnels using a hybrid finite-discrete numerical approach. Journal of Rock mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Volume 6(6), pp. 565-573.

Complete Publication list for the period 2012-2018 (updated June 1st, 2018).
Journals (peer-reviewed)

  1. Elmo D., D. Donati and D. Stead. Challenges in the characterization of rock bridges. Submitted to Engineering Geology. Minor corrections required, revised paper submitted June 2018.
  2. Miyoshi T., D. Elmo and S. Rogers. Influence of the data characterization process on discrete network analyses of fractured rock masses and implications for classification systems. Submitted to International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Revised paper submitted May 2018.
  3. Karimi L., D. Elmo and D. Stead. A novel automated approach with performance validation to improve DFN integration for geomechanical analysis. Submitted to Computer and Geotechnics. Minor corrections required, revised paper submitted June 2018.
  4. Yan S, Y. Song, J. Bai, D. Elmo and Y. Xu. 2018. A study on the failure of end-anchored resin rockbolts subjected to tensile load. Submitted to Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. February 2018. Jiang Y. Q. Wua, L. Wang, Z. Sun, D. Elmo, L. Zheng. 2018. Improved method for monitoring shear stress during PFC direct shear tests. Submitted to the Journal of Testing and Evaluation. Revised paper submitted April 2018. Manuscript ID JTE-2018-0018.
  5. Hao S., G. Yongtao, D. Elmo, J. Aibing, W. Shunchuan and L. Dorador. 2018. A study of gravity flow based on the upside-down drop shape theory and considering rock shape and breakage. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. In Press.
  6. Nadolski S., C. O’Haran, B. Klein, D. Elmo and C. Hart. 2018. Cave Fragmentation in a Cave-to-Mill Context at the New Afton Mine Part II: Implications on Mill Performance. Submitted to Mining Technology (TIMM A). In Press. DOI 10.1080/25726668.2018.1437334.
  7. Hamdi, P., D. Stead, D. Elmo and J. Toyra, J. 2018. Use of an Integrated Finite/Discrete Element Method-Discrete Fracture Network Approach (FDEM-DFN) for Characterizing Surface Subsidence Associated with Sub-Level Caving, Int. J. Rock Mechanics. In press.
  8. Schlotfeldt, P., D. Elmo and B. Panton. 2017. Overhanging rock slope by design: an integrated approach using rock mass strength characterisation, large scale numerical modelling and limiting equilibrium methods. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical engineering. doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2017.09.008.
  9. Nadolski S., M. Munkhchuluun, B. Klein, D. Elmo and C. Hart. 2017. Cave Fragmentation in a Cave-to-Mill Context at the New Afton Mine Part I: Fragmentation and Hang-Up Frequency Prediction. Mining Technology (TIMM A). DOI: 10.1080/14749009.2017.1351115.
  10. Mitelman A., D. Elmo and D. Stead. 2017. Development of a Spring Analogue Approach for the Study of Pillars and Shafts. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology. IJMST-D-16-00125R1.
  11. Gao F., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2016. Numerical simulation of microstructure of brittle rock using a grain-breakable distinct element grain-based model. Computers and Geotechnics. Vol. 78, pp. 203-217.
  12. Mitelman A. and D. Elmo. 2015. Analysis of Tunnel Support Design to Withstand Spalling Induced by Blasting. Journal of Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. Vol. 51, pp. 354-361.
  13. Havaej M., J. Coggan, D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2015. A combined remote sensing-numerical modelling approach to the stability analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 1227-1245.
  14. Hamdi P., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2015. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite/discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN Approach. Journal of Rock mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Vol 7, pp. 509-625.
  15. Panton B., D. Elmo, D. Stead and P. Schlotfeldt. 2015. A Discrete Fracture Network Approach for the Design of Rock Foundation Anchorage. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 124(3), pp. 150-162.
  16. Nadolski S., B. Klein, D. Elmo and M. Scoble. 2015. Cave-to-Mill: A Mine-to-Mill approach for block cave mines. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 124(1), pp. 47-55.
  17. Zhang Y., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2015. Characterization of strength and damage of hard rock pillars using a synthetic rock mass method. Computers and Geotechnics Vol. 6, pp. 56-72.
  18. Mitelman A. and D. Elmo. 2014. Modelling of blast induced damage in tunnels using a hybrid finite-discrete numerical approach. Journal of Rock mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Volume 6(6), pp. 565-573.
  19. Elmo D., S. Rogers, D. Stead and E. Eberhardt. 2014. A Discrete fracture network approach to characterise rock mass fragmentation and implications for geomechanical upscaling. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 123(3), pp. 149-161.
  20. Woo K.S., E. Eberhardt, D. Elmo, D. Stead and P. Kaiser. 2014. Benchmark testing of numerical capabilities for modelling the influence of undercut depth on caving, fracture initiation and subsidence angles associated with block cave mining. Mining Technology Journal. Vol. 123(3), pp. 128-139.
  21. Rogers S., D. Elmo, G. Webb and A. Catalan. 2014. Volumetric fracture intensity measurement for improved rock mass characterisation and fragmentation assessment in block caving operations. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. Vol 48(2), pp. 633-649.
  22. Hamdi P., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2014. Damage characterization during laboratory strength testing: A 3D-finite-discrete element approach. Computers and Geotechnics. Vol. 60, pp. 33-46.
  23. Elmo D., D. Stead, E. Eberhardt and A. Vyazmensky. 2013. Applications of Finite Discrete Element Modelling to Rock Engineering Problems. International Journal of Geomechanics. Vol. 13(5), pp. 565-580.
  24. Woo K-S., E. Eberhardt, D. Elmo and D. Stead. 2013. Empirical investigation and characterization of surface subsidence related to block cave mining. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences: Vol. 61, pp. 31-42.
  25. Coggan J., F. Gao, D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2012. Numerical modelling of the effects of weak immediate roof lithology on coal mine roadway stability. International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol. 90-91, pp. 100-109.

Conference Proceedings (These are conference papers that generally undergo a peer-review process before being accepted for publication).

  1. Elmo D., G. Marcato, L. Borgatti and D. Stead. 2018. A FEM-DEM numerical analysis to study the instability of the Passo della Morte slopes (Carnian Alps, Italy). In: Proc. 52nd US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium. Seattle, Washington, USA, 17–20 June 2018. Paper 755. Accepted.
  2. Miyoshi T., D. Elmo and S. Rogers. A Discrete Fracture Network approach to study the variability of the Geological Strength Index. In: Proc. 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference. Seattle, Washington, USA, 20–22 June 2018. Paper 626. Accepted.
  3. Karimi L., D. Elmo and D. Stead. 2018. DFNAnalyzer: A Web-Based application for discrete fracture network analysis. In: Proc. 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference. Seattle, Washington, USA, 20–22 June 2018. Paper 663. Accepted.
  4. Karimi L., D. Elmo and D. Stead. 2018. DFNCleaner: A novel automated approach to improve DFN integration for geomechanical analysis. In: Proc. 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference. Seattle, Washington, USA, 20–22 June 2018. Paper 664. Accepted.
  5. Elmo D. and D Stead. 2018. Definition and characterisation of intact rock bridges: implications for 2D and 3D slope stability problems. Symposium in Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering. Seville, Spain, April 11-13, 2018.
  6. Miyoshi T., D. Elmo and S. Rogers. 2017. Influence of data characterization process on the kinematic stability analysis of engineered slopes using discrete fracture network models. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Geotechnics. Wuhan, China, October 2017.
  7. Elmo D., T. Miyoshi, H. Sun and A.B. Jin. 2017. An FEM-DEM numerical approach to simulate secondary fragmentation processes. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Geotechnics. Wuhan, China, October 2017.
  8. Hamdi P., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2017. A review of the application of numerical modelling in the prediction of depth of spalling damage around underground openings. In Proceedings of the 51st Int. Symp. Rock Mech., San Francisco, U.S. June 2017. Paper 778.
  9. Munkhchuluun M., S. Nadolski, D. Elmo and B. Klein. 2017. Characterisation of rock mass fragmentation for cave mining. In Proceedings of the 51st Int. Symp. Rock Mech., San Francisco, U.S. June 2017. Paper 53.
  10. Vivas J., C. Hunt and D. Elmo. 2017. Combination of traditional core logging and televiewer imaging to target fractures for grouting purposes. Advantages and disadvantages. In Proceedings of the 51st Int. Symp. Rock Mech., San Francisco, U.S. June 2017. Paper 1031.
  11. Wang R., D. Elmo, D. Stead and S. Rogers. 2017. Characterisation of rock mass representative elementary volume using RQD and a discrete fracture network approach. In Proceedings of the 51st Int. Symp. Rock Mech., San Francisco, U.S. June 2017. Paper 760.
  12. Grisi S., R. Castellanza, F. Agliardi, G. Crosta and D. Elmo. 2016. 3D FEM/DEM numerical evaluation of the failure mechanism of a gypsum pillar. 2016 ISRM International Symposium EUROCK 2016. Turkey.
  13. Karimi L., D. Elmo, and D. Stead. 2016. Simulation of rock bridge failure at the laboratory scale using a combined FDEM modeling and discrete crack network approach. 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Houston, Texas, June 2016. Paper 588.
  14. Elmo D., K. Moffitt and J. Carvalho. 2016. Synthetic rock mass modelling: experience gained and lessons learned. 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Houston, Texas, June 2016. Paper 777.
  15. Havaej M., D. Stead, J. Coggan and D. Elmo. 2016. Application of discrete fracture networks (DFN) in the stability analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK. 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Houston, Texas, June 2016. Paper 040.
  16. Rogers S., D. Elmo, G. Webb and G.M. Moreno. 2016. DFN Modelling of major structural instabilities in a large open pit for end of life planning purposes. 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. Houston, Texas, June 2016. Paper 882.
  17. Elmo D., E. Eberhardt and D. Stead. 2016. Discrete Fracture Network modelling: importance of accounting for data uncertainty and variability. Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining – MassMin 2016. Paper 183.
  18. Nadolski S., Y. Liu, B. Klein, D. Elmo, M. Scoble and J. Scholar. 2016. Investigation into the Implementation of Sensor-based Ore Sorting Systems at a Block Caving Operation. Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining – MassMin 2016.
  19. Hamdi P., D. Stead, D. Elmo and J. Töyrä. 2015. The use of numerical methods in simulating the influence of geological structure on the surface subsidence associated with sub-level caving. Proc. 49th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2015. Paper 571.
  20. Liu Y., S. Nadolski, D. Elmo, B. Klein and M. Scoble. 2015. Use of digital imaging processing techniques to characterise block caving secondary fragmentation and implications for a proposed Cave-to-Mill approach. Proc. 49th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium. San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2015. Paper 9.
  21. Panton B., D. Elmo, J. Carvahlo and E.T. Brown. 2015. Numerical simulation of rock cone pullout and the influence of discrete fracture network statistics on foundation anchor capacity. Proceedings of the 13th ISRM Congress. Montreal, May 10-13th. Paper 711.
  22. Elmo D., D. Stead and S. Rogers. 2015. Guidelines for the quantitative description of discontinuities for use in Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Proceedings of the 13th ISRM Congress. Montreal, May 10-13th. Paper 587.
  23. Dorador L., E. Eberhardt and D. Elmo. 2015. Influence Block Strength and Veining on Secondary Fragmentation Related to Block Caving Proceedings of the 13th ISRM Congress. Montreal, May 10-13th. Paper 806.
  24. Eberhardt E., K. Woo, D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2015. Transitioning from open pit to underground mass mining: meeting the challenges of going deeper. Proceedings of the 13th ISRM Congress. Montreal, May 10-13th. Keynote. Paper 896.
  25. Vivas J., C. Hunt, D. Stead, D. Allen and D. Elmo. 2015. Characterising groundwater in rock slopes using a combined remote sensing numerical modelling approach. Proceedings of the 13th ISRM Congress. Montreal, May 10-13th. Paper 679.
  26. Elmo D., R. Rogers, L. Dorador and E. Eberhardt. 2014. An FEM-DEM numerical approach to simulate secondary fragmentation. Proc. 14th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Geotechnics. Kyoto, Japan.
  27. Keneth L., Z. Tuckey, D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2014. Blast Damage in Rock Slopes: Potential applications of discrete fracture network engineering. Proc. 1st Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Vancouver, Canada.
  28. Hamdi P., D. Stead, D. Elmo, J. Töyrä and B.M. Stöckel. 2014. Use of an integrated Finite/Discrete Element Method-Discrete Fracture Network Approach (FDEM-DFN) in characterizing surface subsidence associated with sub-level caving. Proc. 1st Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Vancouver, Canada.
  29. Vivas J., D. Stead, D. Allen, D. Elmo and S. D’Ambra. 2014. Characterisation of groundwater in rock slopes using a DFN engineering approach. Proc. 1st Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Vancouver, Canada
  30. Hamdi P., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2014. Characterizing the influence of micro-heterogeneity on the strength and fracture of rock using an FDEM-nDFN approach. ISRM Rock Mechanics Symposium. 27th to 29th May, Vigo, Spain. (Conference award for the best paper written by a PhD student, Hamdi P.)
  31. Panton B., D. Elmo, P. Schlotfeldt and J. Carvalho. 2014. Design of rock foundation anchorage using discrete fracture networks. Proc. 1st Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Vancouver, Canada.
  32. Elmo D., Y. Liu and S. Rogers. 2014. Principles of discrete fracture network modelling for geotechnical applications. Proc. 1st Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering. Vancouver, Canada.
  33. Dorador L., E. Eberhardt and D. Elmo. 2014. Assessment of broken ore density variations in a block cave draw column as a function of fragment size distributions and fines migration. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Block and Sublevel Caving. Santiago. Chile. June 5th – 6th. pp. 109-117.
  34. Dorador L., E. Eberhardt and D. Elmo. 2014. Influence of secondary fragmentation and column height on block size distribution and fines migration reaching drawpoints. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Block and Sublevel Caving. Santiago. Chile. June 5th – 6th. pp. 128-137.
  35. Elmo D., S. Rogers, R. Dunphy and D. Bearinger. 2013. An initial assessment of the impact of varying perf cluster design on hydraulic fracture effectiveness. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2013. Paper 13-716.
  36. Hamdi P., D. Stead and D. Elmo. 2013. Numerical simulation of damage during laboratory testing on rock using a 3D-FEM/DEM approach. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2013. Paper 13-583.
  37. Palleske C.K., D.J. Hutchinson, D. Elmo and M.S. Diederichs. 2013. Impacts of limited data collection windows on accurate rock mass simulation using discrete fracture networks. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2013. Paper 13-501.
  38. Schlotfeldt, P., B. Panton and D. Elmo. 2013. New Park Bridge, Kicking Horse Canyon Pier 5: a difficult foundation on rock. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27–30, 2013. Paper 13-613.
  39. Rogers S., D. Elmo, G. Webb and A. Catalan. 2013. Volumetric fracture intensity measurement for improved rock mass characterisation and fragmentation assessment in block caving operations. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27–30, 2013. Paper 13-487.
  40. Vivas J., Z. Tuckey, D. Stead, A. Wolter, D. Elmo and S. D’Ambra. 2013. Seepage characterization in high rock slopes using remote sensing. Proc. 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, June 27-30, 2013. Paper 13-462.
  41. Elmo D. 2012. FDEM & DFN modelling and applications to rock engineering problems. Faculty of Engineering, Turin University, Italy (MIR 2012 – XIV Ciclo di Conferenze di Meccanica e Ingegneria delle Rocce – Nuovi metodi di indagine, monitoraggio e modellazione degli ammassi rocciosi). November 21st – 22nd, 2012.

Chapters (Peer Reviewed)

  1. Elmo D. and D. Stead. 2016. Applications of fracture mechanics to rock slopes. Rock Mechanics and Engineering Volume 3: Analysis, Modeling & Design, Chapter 23, 34 pages.
  2. Elmo D., A. Vyazmensky, D. Stead and S. Rogers. 2012 Applications of a finite discrete element approach to model block cave mining. Chapter 19 in: Innovative Numerical Modelling in Geomechanics Edited by Luis Ribeiro e Sousa, Eurípedes Vargas Jr., M.M. Fernandes, Roberto Azevedo. Published May 23rd 2012 by CRC Press – 978-0-415-61661-4. 474 pages.